The amazing healing powers of Flaxzym

September 14, 2015, Featured in Cancer and Natural Medicines, 0 Comments

Flax is a blue flowering crop grown on the Prairies of Canada for its oil-rich seeds. There are two types of flax seed, yellow (or golden) and brown, and their nutritional profiles are very similar and both contain the same number of short-chain omega-3 fatty acids. While brown flax seed is edible for humans, it is more typically used in animal feeds because of its tougher texture. Golden flax seed is widely considered to be the best variety for human consumption. Canadian golden flax seed is grown primarily in the clean prairie provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Alberta. Canadian golden flax seed is some of the finest worldwide. …

Modulation of β-catenin signaling by natural agents induces apoptotic cell death in many common cancers, including colon cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer. Part 2

November 5, 2013, Featured in Cancer and Natural Medicines, 0 Comments

FoxM1 (forkhead box protein M1) protein is a member of the Fox (forkhead box) family of transcription factors with known roles in regulating cell cycle progression. FOXM1 is a master regulator of cancer cell growth and is overexpressed in a majority of cancers, while its expression usually low in normal cells. Elevated FoxM1 expression is found in cancers of the liver, prostate, brain, breast, lung, colon, pancreas, skin, cervix, ovary, mouth, blood and nervous system. In addition, FoxM1 may drive tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. For these reasons, FoxM1 is an attractive target for anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin, epirubicin and cisplatin.

FoxM1 is a downstream component of Wnt signaling and is critical for β-catenin transcriptional function in tumor cells. Wnt3a increases the level and nuclear translocation of FoxM1, which binds …

Modulation of β-catenin signaling by natural agents induces apoptotic cell death in many common cancers, including colon cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer. Part 1

September 8, 2013, Featured in Cancer and Natural Medicines, 0 Comments

Beta-catenin is a multifunctional oncogenic protein that contributes fundamentally to cell development and biology. Mutations and overexpression of β-catenin has been implicated in many cancers, including colon cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, ovarian cancer and endometrial cancer. β-catenin is an essential component of two cellular systems: As a component of the cadherin protein complex, β-catenin can regulate cell growth and adhesion between cells and also acts as an intracellular signal transducer in the Wnt signaling pathway. The Wnt signaling pathway stimulates the growth of both normal cells and cancer stem cells.

Cytoplasmic β-catenin levels are normally kept low through continuous proteosome-mediated degradation by a ‘destructive complex’ of APC (adenomatous polyposis coli)/GSK-3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β)/Axin. This is a feedback mechanism that prevents the excessive accumulation of β-catenin in …

Cadherin-11, metastatic prostate cancer and ProstaZym

August 21, 2013, Featured in Cancer and Natural Medicines, 0 Comments

In advanced stages of prostate cancer, it can metastasize to various regions of the body, most commonly the lymph nodes and bone. Tumor cell interaction with the surrounding microenvironment plays an important role in prostate cancer metastasis. Approximately 90% of patients with prostate cancer have bone metastasis at the time of death. Once prostate cancer cells spread to the bone, currently, no treatment regimens are available to eradicate the metastasis, and cancer-related death becomes inevitable. Thus, prostate cancer bone metastasis-associated clinical complications and treatment resistance pose major clinical challenges.

The bones that are most commonly involved are vertebrae, sternum, pelvic bones, ribs, and femurs. Metastatic prostate cancer cells tend to make the bones around them thicker and denser, whereas other …

Galectin-3, metastatic prostate cancer and ProstaZym

August 11, 2013, Featured in Cancer and Natural Medicines, 0 Comments

Lectins are carbohydrate (sugar)-binding proteins (not to be confused with glycoproteins, which are proteins containing sugar chains or residues). Lectins have been found in plant, viruses, microorganisms and animals. Lectins serve many different biological functions in animals, from the regulation of cell adhesion to glycoprotein synthesis and the control of protein levels in the blood. They have been classified according to their carbohydrate-binding specificity. They may also bind soluble extracellular and intercellular glycoproteins.

Carbohydrates are defined as organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen that are organized into ring structures. Lectin-carbohydrate (cellular glycoconjugate) recognition is operative in biochemical information transfer. Changes in glycan structures and the interactions of these structures with endogenous carbohydrate-binding lectins are now considered to be potential biomarkers on cancer cells for monitoring tumor progression.

Tumor cells have …

Inhibition of SCD1 kills cancer cells by altering fatty acids metabolism and membrane composition

August 4, 2013, Featured in Cancer and Natural Medicines, 0 Comments

Cancer cells are distinct from normal body cells based partly on their unique metabolic status, one element of which is an unusual requirement for fatty acid synthesis. Fatty acids are the major constituents of membrane lipid. Cellular proliferation requires fatty acids for synthesis of membranes and signaling molecules. Thus rapidly- proliferating cancer cells often have a robust program of fatty acid synthesis accompanied by high-level expression of associated genes such as fatty-acid synthase (FASN). FASN is over-expressed in many cancers. Increased lipid biosynthesis and desaturation are key requirements for tumor cell survival and proliferation.

Fatty acids are chains of carbons with attached hydrogen molecules at one end and an acid group (carboxylic acids) at the other end. Long-chain fatty acids are types of fats that have several carbons in their chain …

The latest advances in natural cancer treatment: Combining Hepazym immunotherapy and Herbalzym therapy in clinical trials to treat a large variety of cancers

July 24, 2013, Featured in Cancer and Natural Medicines, 0 Comments

Cancer immunotherapy is the use of the immune system to reject cancer. Gammadelta (γδ) T cells are an immune cell found within epithelial tissues. Epithelial tissue is found throughout the body. It is present in the skin, as well as the covering and lining of organs and internal passageways, such as the gastrointestinal tract. Epithelial tissues are also a prominent component of glands, such as prostate gland. γδ T cells play unique and critical roles in recognition of damage or disease in epithelial tissues and provide a crucial first line of defense. 

Unlike the alphabeta (αβ) T cells of the immune system (that are launched on a search-and-destroy mission when the skin suffers a cut or other damage), most γδ T …

Adipose microenvironment plays a direct role in the growth and spread of androgen-independent (castrate-resistant) prostate cancer

July 7, 2013, Featured in Cancer and Natural Medicines, 0 Comments

Adipose tissue (fat tissue) is currently recognized as an endocrine organ similar to thyroid and pancreas, due to their ability to secrete hormones such as leptin and estrogen and estrogen that could affect metabolism, inflammation and cancer progression. We now know that tumor growth is regulated by interactions between tumor and their tissue microenvironment, such as fibroblasts, immune cells and the extracellular matrix.

Adipose tissue secretes a variety of cytokines, referred to as adipokines. Most adipokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and leptin, are pro-inflammatory. One prominent exception is adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer adipokine, which promotes insulin sensitization and protects cardiovascular tissue from ischemic injury. Pro-inflammatory adipokines can increase chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue. Tumor-associated adipocytes (fat cells) also contribute to inflammation. Inflamed tumor-associated adipose tissue …

CellZym: Combined synergistic use of inhibiters of HDAC, GSK-3, mTOR and Proteasome in cancer therapy

June 24, 2013, Featured in Cancer and Natural Medicines, 0 Comments

Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and acetylation are crucial regulatory modules at the heart of biological processes in the cell and are tightly regulated by a multitude of enzymes. Histones are the chief protein components of chromatin, acting as spools around which DNA winds. The balance of histone acetylation and deacetylation is a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Histone acetylation induced by histone acetyl transferases (HATs) is associated with gene transcription, while histone hypoacetylation induced by histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity is associated with gene silencing. Unlike acetylation, histone lysine methylation can signal either activation or repression, depending on the site and degree (mono-, di-, or tri-) of methylation.

HDACs also regulate the acetylation status of a variety of other non-histone substrates, including key tumor suppressor proteins …

GSK-3, lithium, and cancer

June 18, 2013, Featured in Cancer and Natural Medicines, 0 Comments

GSK-3 (glycogen synthase kinase) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that is active all the time in all cells, but particularly highly in the brain. GSK-3 was originally named for its ability to phosphorylate and inactivate glycogen synthase and regulate glucose metabolism. As genes and proteins are discovered, they are often ascribed names based on function—their function at the time of discovery. GSK-3 turned out to be a multifunctional enzyme, able to phosphorylate many proteins. Phosphorylation of the protein acts as a molecular switch, turning the activity on or off. GSK-3 has many phosphorylation targets. It should therefore not be surprising that GSK-3 has both pro- and antiapoptotic roles.

GSK-3 is presently known to be a key regulator of a wide range of cellular functions. GSK-3 regulates numerous cellular processes through …

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